Hyperpigmentation is the deposition of melanin (pigment) due to the stimulation of melanogenesis. Melanogenesis is the process by which pigment is produced and duplicated in the skin. It is the end result of the immune system triggering an inflammatory response, which then triggers melanocyte activity to protect the skin’s DNA from damage and mutation. This process is instigated by any hormonal trigger or cutaneous inflammation, such as heat, trauma and sun.
Hyperpigmentation occurs when excess melanin is produced by the skin. This can be caused by factors such as hormones, aging, sun exposure, environmental damage or improper use of aggressive skin treatment products. Light or dark spots are triggered by a trauma (e.g. acne) to the body and can appear suddenly or over a period of years.